CRA Working Paper Series

CRA Working Paper 2014-03: Real Property Assessment Trends in the Washington Region, 2005-2014

December 2014 –  Local governments in the Washington region are highly dependent on revenue from real property taxes. Though nonresidential property assessments have increased since 2009 in the region’s central jurisdictions, many suburban areas have struggled to rebuild their commercial assessment bases in the past five years. This trend is placing additional burdens on residential property owners in these jurisdictions and making it more difficult for local governments to maintain their public facilities and services.   FULL REPORT


CRA Working Paper 2014-02: A Profile of Higher Education Institutions in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area

May 2014 – The Washington metro area hosts at least 93 colleges and universities, with a total enrollment of about 338,000 students.  This report profiles the region’s institutions of higher education by location and type, and offers insights into the importance of these institutions to the regional economy.  FULL REPORT


CRA Working Paper 2014-01: The Potential Impact of the Panama Canal Expansion on the Port of Virginia

February 2014 – The Panama Canal is currently constructing a new set of locks that will allow larger vessels to transit the canal which is expected to alter shipping patterns among U.S. ports. This report examines possible increases in container traffic at the ports at Hampton Roads following the opening of the new locks in 2015.    FULL REPORT


CRA Working Paper 2013-11: Trends and Outlook for Transit Commuting in the Washington Metropolitan Area

December 2013 – Just one in seven commuters in the Washington, DC metropolitan area (WMA) commutes by public transit; this figure is expected to remain constant through 2040. As the region grows and changes, how do the characteristics of the region’s transit riders relate to its future transportation situation and potential economic prosperity?  FULL REPORT


CRA Working Paper 2013-10: Understanding of the Immigration Flow and Stock in Washington Metropolitan Area: Observations from Panel Data

December 2013 – The foreign-born population represents a significant and growing share of the Washington DC Metropolitan Area’s total population. What are the characteristics and migration patterns of the region’s foreign born residents? How do these attributes affect the region’s workforce?  FULL REPORT


CRA Working Paper 2013-09: Female Labor Force Participation Trends in the Core of the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area

November 2013 – Though the Washington metro area has a higher rate of female labor force participation than the largest metro areas in the U.S., this rate is declining in the region.  This paper examines the trends for female labor force participation and educational attainment in the core jurisdictions of the Washington metro area and identifies areas that may merit further study.  FULL REPORT


CRA Working Paper 2013-08: Outlook for the Interstate 95 Corridor in Fairfax and Prince William Counties

November 2013 – Over the next 20 years the I-95 corridor in Northern Virginia is expected to undergo a transformation from a primarily low-density residential area to a series of higher-density urban nodes.  The expected emergence of these urban nodes will present government and business leaders with a variety of critical challenges related to transportation, economic development, and land use.  FULL REPORT


CRA Working Paper 2013-07: The Lower-Wage Recovery in the Higher-Wage Economy of the Washington DC Metropolitan Area

October 2013 –  The nature of job growth in metro Washington during the current economic recovery has differed from the losses sffered during the recession of 2008 and 2009.  During the recession job losses were most severe for mid-wage occupations, while higher-wage occupations continued to add jobs.  Since 2010 job growth in the region has been fastest in lower-wage occupations, though, and continued reductions in government employment and procurement will hinder job growth in higher-wage occupations in the short-term.  FULL REPORT


CRA Working Paper 2013-06: An Assessment of Factors Affecting Air Cargo Operations at Washington Dulles International Airport

September 2013 – Washington Dulles International Airport only ranks 21st in the nation in terms of air cargo activity, and the amount of air cargo handled at Dulles has declined significantly since 2000.  While opportunities do exist for Dulles Airport to expand its international air cargo activities, it will continue to be at a competitive disadvantage relative to other airports that have more flights to more international destinations.  If air cargo activity does increase at Dulles Airport, there will need to be significant investments in both on- and off-airport infrastructure, including better road connections on the airport’s west side.  FULL REPORT

CRA Working Paper 2013-05: Beyond the Legion Bridge: An Evaluation of the Transportation Connections between Montgomery and Fairfax Counties

June 2013 – Opened in 1962, the American Legion Memorial Bridge remains the only direct transportation link between Montgomery County, Maryland, and Fairfax County, Virginia, the two largest and wealthiest jurisdictions in the Washington DC metropolitan area.  This paper considers growth and change in the two counties, the causes of worsening congestion, and the key issues that should be considered in planning for future investments in transportation infrastructure.  FULL REPORT


CRA Working Paper 2013-04: The Changing Labor Force and Sectoral Structure of the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Economy

May 2013 – The Washington Metropolitan Area underwent an accelerated structural change during the Great Recession.  This paper examines a number of measures, including changing labor force participation rates among different age cohorts, changes in gender based employment trends, and a shift in job growth from the region’s public to its private sectors.  FULL REPORT

CRA Working Paper 2013-03: Generational Perspectives on Residential Mobility: Implications for Housing Demand

May 2013 – Residential mobility rates in the U.S. have dropped to historically low levels.  This research examines residential mobility trends of the U.S. population from a life-cycle perspective using four decades of microdata from the Current Population Survey.  The decline in mobility is associated with declines in marriage and childbearing, but the economic and housing market downturn were also key factors in reduced residential mobility. FULL REPORT

CRA Working Paper 2013-02: New Trends in the Distribution and Characteristics of the Federal Workforce in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area 1998-2011

March 2013 – The federal workforce in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area is decreasing.  This working paper identifies the underlying changes in the federal workforce distribution across pay grades, age, gender, length of service, and salary.  It also identifies the possible reasons for these trends and their implications. FULL REPORT

CRA Working Paper 2013-01: International and Foreign-born Students in Higher Education in the Washington, DC Metropolitan Area

February 2013 – This research examines the sizes, trends and the economic contributions of both non-immigrant international and foreign-born students in higher education in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area. FULL REPORT

CRA Working Paper 2012-02: Immigrants in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area Labor Market

September 2012: About 1.2 million of the Washington DC metro area’s population is foreign-born, accounting for 28 percent of the region’s workforce and generating $45.4 billion in earnings.  The region’s foreign-born population tends to work in different industries than the native-born population, but the types of work and the level of earnings varies depending on citizenship status and region of origin. FULL REPORT

CRA Working Paper 2012-01: Domestic Migration To and From the Washington DC Metropolitan Area 1985-2010

July 2012 – Since 2007, domestic migration has had a significant role in shaping the economic and demographic composition of the Washington DC region.  Over the last few years, more than 100,000 households moved to the region and net domestic migration (in-migrants minus out-migrants) approached 15,000–the highest level of annual domestic migration in three decades.  The economic vitality of the region depends on the continued ability to attract new people to the area.  However, rising housing costs and increased traffic congestion here, and stronger job growth in other regions, may make the Washington DC region less attractive to domestic migrants in the near future. FULL REPORT